International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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Lipid Biogenic Gene Pathways as Biomarkers to Identify Elevated Intraocular Eye Pressure

Received: 7 September 2023    Accepted: 25 September 2023    Published: 27 September 2023
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Abstract

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, and around 2.7 million cases of Glaucoma are diagnosed every year. Glaucoma is when excess aqueous humor fluid in the eye causes high intraocular eye pressure within the eye, which damages the optic nerve overtime. In a healthy eye, the aqueous humor is drained by the trabecular meshwork, a specialized tissue located in the drainage angle of the eye. The trabecular meshwork allows aqueous humor to flow out of the eye through a network of channels and spaces, which helps to maintain the balance of the production and drainage of the fluid, regulating the intraocular eye pressure. When the trabecular meshwork is damaged, it leads to a buildup of the fluid which leads to increase in intraocular eye pressure. Early stages of glaucoma have limited symptoms and it is diagnosed by measuring intraocular eye pressure which has many limitations and difficulties. Therefore, an alternative method, such as looking at a biomarker, would prove more efficient and valuable. Since glaucoma inflicts optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss overtime, treatments are reactive as opposed to preventive. Using a biomarker to predict when glaucoma will occur can be a game changer in curing the disease more effectively. This research paper looks at lipid biogenic as a biomarker for high intraocular eye pressure, a key sign and effect of glaucoma. Understanding the expression and regulation of lipids in the Trabecular meshwork of the eye is integral in diagnosing glaucoma early in patients, so that treatment can start sooner. Trabecular meshwork cells were taken from a mouse, goat, and pig sample, and lipid expression was analyzed while these cells were under different levels of stress. The hypothesis is that if the TM cell is under more stress, the lipid levels will be under expressed, because lipids are an important factor in regulating intraocular pressure homeostasis, along with aqueous humor drainage. Therefore, a lower expression of lipids in TM cells points towards the patient having abnormally high intraocular eye pressure, effectively having glaucoma. In conclusion, the data points towards lipids being a biomarker towards identifying high intraocular eye pressure. There is a clear correlation between decreased lipid biogenic pathway expression and overstressed trabecular meshwork cells. This research was conducted at the Marilyn Eye Glick Institute in Indiana University under the supervision of Dr. Pattabiraman.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11
Published in International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science (Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2023)
Page(s) 39-43
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Glaucoma, Lipids, Lipid Pathways, Trabecular Meshwork, Interocular Eye Pressure, Lipids in Eye

References
[1] Mount. “Patients with Specific Types of Lipids May Be at Higher Risk of Developing Blinding Eye Disease.” Mount Sinai Health System, Mount Sinai Health System, 13 June 2023, www.mountsinai.org/about/newsroom/2023/patients-with-specific-types-of-lipids-may-be-at-higher-risk-of-developing-blinding-eye-disease#:~:text=More%20specifically%2C%20the%20dysregulation%20of,in%20four%20different%20study%20groups.
[2] Wang, Ting, and Padmanabhan P. Pattabiraman. “Analysis of Lipid Contents in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells by Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) Profiling Lipidomics.” Springer EBooks, Jan. 2023, pp. 291–98, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2966-6_24.
[3] Azbukina, Nadezhda V., et al. “Targeted Lipidomic Analysis of Aqueous Humor Reveals Signaling Lipid-Mediated Pathways in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.” Biology, vol. 10, no. 7, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, July 2021, pp. 658–58, https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10070658.
[4] Shiming Wang, Xianyi Bao; Hyperlipidemia, Blood Lipid Level, and the Risk of Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2019; 60 (4): 1028-1043. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25845.
[5] Xu, Mingxin, et al. “Plasma Lipid Levels and Risk of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Genetic Study Using Mendelian Randomization.” BMC Ophthalmology, vol. 20, no. 1, BioMed Central, Oct. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01661-0.
[6] Ayman J. Aljohani, Genea Edwards, Yenifer Guerra, Sander Dubovy, Darlene Miller, Richard K. Lee, Sanjoy K. Bhattacharya; Human Trabecular Meshwork Sphingolipid and Ceramide Profiles and Potential Latent Fungal Commensalism. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014; 55 (6): 3413-3422. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13570.
[7] “Sus Scrofa NAD (P) Dependent Steroid Dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL), MRNA - Nucleotide - NCBI.” Nih.gov, 2023, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NM_001167636.1?from=1&to=1086&report=fasta.
[8] Suzana Pavljašević, and Mensura Ascerić. “Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Serum Lipids.” Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 1, Association of Basic Medical Sciences of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Feb. 2009, pp. 85–88, https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2009.2863.
[9] “Glaucoma | National Eye Institute.” Nih.gov, 2022, www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/glaucoma#:~:text=What%20is%20glaucoma%3F,a%20comprehensive%20dilated%20eye%20exam.
[10] Kian Madjedi, et al. “The Association between Serum Lipids and Intraocular Pressure in 2 Large United Kingdom Cohorts.” Ophthalmology, vol. 129, no. 9, Elsevier BV, Sept. 2022, pp. 986–96, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.04.023.
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    Rakshith Srinivasan, Padmanabhan P. Pattabiraman. (2023). Lipid Biogenic Gene Pathways as Biomarkers to Identify Elevated Intraocular Eye Pressure. International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 8(3), 39-43. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11

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    ACS Style

    Rakshith Srinivasan; Padmanabhan P. Pattabiraman. Lipid Biogenic Gene Pathways as Biomarkers to Identify Elevated Intraocular Eye Pressure. Int. J. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023, 8(3), 39-43. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11

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    AMA Style

    Rakshith Srinivasan, Padmanabhan P. Pattabiraman. Lipid Biogenic Gene Pathways as Biomarkers to Identify Elevated Intraocular Eye Pressure. Int J Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2023;8(3):39-43. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11,
      author = {Rakshith Srinivasan and Padmanabhan P. Pattabiraman},
      title = {Lipid Biogenic Gene Pathways as Biomarkers to Identify Elevated Intraocular Eye Pressure},
      journal = {International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {39-43},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijovs.20230803.11},
      abstract = {Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, and around 2.7 million cases of Glaucoma are diagnosed every year. Glaucoma is when excess aqueous humor fluid in the eye causes high intraocular eye pressure within the eye, which damages the optic nerve overtime. In a healthy eye, the aqueous humor is drained by the trabecular meshwork, a specialized tissue located in the drainage angle of the eye. The trabecular meshwork allows aqueous humor to flow out of the eye through a network of channels and spaces, which helps to maintain the balance of the production and drainage of the fluid, regulating the intraocular eye pressure. When the trabecular meshwork is damaged, it leads to a buildup of the fluid which leads to increase in intraocular eye pressure. Early stages of glaucoma have limited symptoms and it is diagnosed by measuring intraocular eye pressure which has many limitations and difficulties. Therefore, an alternative method, such as looking at a biomarker, would prove more efficient and valuable. Since glaucoma inflicts optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss overtime, treatments are reactive as opposed to preventive. Using a biomarker to predict when glaucoma will occur can be a game changer in curing the disease more effectively. This research paper looks at lipid biogenic as a biomarker for high intraocular eye pressure, a key sign and effect of glaucoma. Understanding the expression and regulation of lipids in the Trabecular meshwork of the eye is integral in diagnosing glaucoma early in patients, so that treatment can start sooner. Trabecular meshwork cells were taken from a mouse, goat, and pig sample, and lipid expression was analyzed while these cells were under different levels of stress. The hypothesis is that if the TM cell is under more stress, the lipid levels will be under expressed, because lipids are an important factor in regulating intraocular pressure homeostasis, along with aqueous humor drainage. Therefore, a lower expression of lipids in TM cells points towards the patient having abnormally high intraocular eye pressure, effectively having glaucoma. In conclusion, the data points towards lipids being a biomarker towards identifying high intraocular eye pressure. There is a clear correlation between decreased lipid biogenic pathway expression and overstressed trabecular meshwork cells. This research was conducted at the Marilyn Eye Glick Institute in Indiana University under the supervision of Dr. Pattabiraman.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijovs.20230803.11
    AB  - Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, and around 2.7 million cases of Glaucoma are diagnosed every year. Glaucoma is when excess aqueous humor fluid in the eye causes high intraocular eye pressure within the eye, which damages the optic nerve overtime. In a healthy eye, the aqueous humor is drained by the trabecular meshwork, a specialized tissue located in the drainage angle of the eye. The trabecular meshwork allows aqueous humor to flow out of the eye through a network of channels and spaces, which helps to maintain the balance of the production and drainage of the fluid, regulating the intraocular eye pressure. When the trabecular meshwork is damaged, it leads to a buildup of the fluid which leads to increase in intraocular eye pressure. Early stages of glaucoma have limited symptoms and it is diagnosed by measuring intraocular eye pressure which has many limitations and difficulties. Therefore, an alternative method, such as looking at a biomarker, would prove more efficient and valuable. Since glaucoma inflicts optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss overtime, treatments are reactive as opposed to preventive. Using a biomarker to predict when glaucoma will occur can be a game changer in curing the disease more effectively. This research paper looks at lipid biogenic as a biomarker for high intraocular eye pressure, a key sign and effect of glaucoma. Understanding the expression and regulation of lipids in the Trabecular meshwork of the eye is integral in diagnosing glaucoma early in patients, so that treatment can start sooner. Trabecular meshwork cells were taken from a mouse, goat, and pig sample, and lipid expression was analyzed while these cells were under different levels of stress. The hypothesis is that if the TM cell is under more stress, the lipid levels will be under expressed, because lipids are an important factor in regulating intraocular pressure homeostasis, along with aqueous humor drainage. Therefore, a lower expression of lipids in TM cells points towards the patient having abnormally high intraocular eye pressure, effectively having glaucoma. In conclusion, the data points towards lipids being a biomarker towards identifying high intraocular eye pressure. There is a clear correlation between decreased lipid biogenic pathway expression and overstressed trabecular meshwork cells. This research was conducted at the Marilyn Eye Glick Institute in Indiana University under the supervision of Dr. Pattabiraman.
    VL  - 8
    IS  - 3
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Marilyn Eye Glick Institute, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

  • Marilyn Eye Glick Institute, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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