Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2020, Page: 15-20
Research Progress on Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tear
Wei Liping, Department of Medical College, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China
He Guiyun, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, Changsha, China
Received: Nov. 24, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 24, 2019;       Published: Jan. 7, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20200501.13      View  149      Downloads  52
Abstract
Various eye diseases can cause retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tear. RPE tear is common in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases the risk of PRE tear, the mechanism of which is a sudden change in intraocular pressure during drug injection, vitreous macular traction, destruction of the RPE tight junction barrier and secondary contraction and fibrosis of the choroidal neovascular membrane. The height of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) is an important risk factor for RPE tear in patients with nAMD after injection of anti-VEGF drugs. The diagnosis of RPE tears primarily relies on imaging studies,such as fundus photography、fundus autofluorescence、optical coherence tomography and so on. Regarding treatment, we must first determine whether the patient has a RPE tear, or whether there are risk factors related to the RPE tear, and then perform the corresponding personalized treatment. If possible, consider stem cell transplant alternatives. There is no proven method to prevent RPE tear so far. This article will review and summarize the research progress in the pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of RPE tear caused by anti-VEGF drugs, and further improve the understanding of RPE tears,in order to provide reference for clinical work.
Keywords
Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tear, Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration
To cite this article
Wei Liping, He Guiyun, Research Progress on Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tear, International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2020, pp. 15-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20200501.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Singh R P, Sears J E. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears After Pegaptanib Injection for Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2006, 142 (1): 0-162.
[2]
Vander, J. F. Retinal pigment epithelial tears after single administration of intravitreal bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration [J]. Yearbook of Ophthalmology, 2010, 2010: 134-135.
[3]
Mathews J P, Jalil A, Lavin M J, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial tear following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (avastin?): optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiographic findings [J]. Eye, 2007, 21 (7): 1004-1005.
[4]
Bakri S J, Kitzmann A S. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear after Intravitreal Ranibizumab [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2007, 143 (3): 0-507.
[5]
Shah C P, Hsu J, Garg S J, et al. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear After Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2006, 142 (6): 0-10710.
[6]
Carvounis P E, Kopel A C, Benz M S. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears Following Ranibizumab for Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2007, 143 (3): 0-505.
[7]
Saito M, Kano M, Itagaki K, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium tear after intravitreal aflibercept injection [J]. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2013, 7: 1287-9.
[8]
Clemens C R, Eter N. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears: Risk Factors, Mechanism and Therapeutic Monitoring [J]. Ophthamologica, 2015, 235 (1): 1-9.
[9]
Sarraf D, London N J, Khurana R N, et al. Ranibizumab Treatment for Pigment Epithelial Detachment Secondary to Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Post Hoc Analysis of the HARBOR Study [J]. Ophthalmology, 2016, 123 (10): 2213-24.
[10]
Meyer, H C. Acute retinal pigment epithelial tear following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) injection for occult choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age related macular degeneration [J]. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2006, 90 (9): 1207-1208.
[11]
Chan C K, Prema A, Meyer C H, et al. Optical coherence tomography-measured pigment epithelial detachment height as a predictor for retinal pigment epithelial tears associated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections [J]. Retina, 2010, 30 (2): 203-11.
[12]
Chang L K, Flaxel C J, Lauer A K, et al. RPE tears after pegaptanib treatment in age-related macular degeneration [J]. Retina, 2007, 27 (7): 857-63.
[13]
David S, Clement C, Ehsan R, et al. Prospective evaluation of the incidence and risk factors for the development of RPE tears after high- and low-dose ranibizumab therapy [J]. Retina, 2013, 33 (8): 1551-7.
[14]
Guber J, Praveen A, Saeed M U. Higher incidence of retinal pigment epithelium tears after ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration with increasing pigment epithelium detachment height [J]. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2013, 97 (11): 1486-1487.
[15]
Smith B T, Kraus C L, Apte R S. Retinal pigment epithelial tears in ranibizumab-treated eyes [J]. Retina, 2009, 29 (3): 335-9.
[16]
Sibel D, Sengul O. Pigment epithelial tears associated with anti-VEGF therapy: incidence, long-term visual outcome, and relationship with pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration [J]. Retina, 2014, 34 (6): 1156-1162.
[17]
Allen C, Chang L K, Fei Y, et al. Predictors of anti-VEGF-associated retinal pigment epithelial tear using FA and OCT analysis [J]. Retina, 2008, 28 (9): 1265.
[18]
Wong L J, Desai R U, Atul J, et al. Surveillance for potential adverse events associated with the use of intravitreal bevacizumab for retinal and choroidal vascular disease [J]. Retina, 2008, 28 (8): 1151.
[19]
Wolf A, Rüping J, Neubauer A S, et al. Alterations of vascular pigment epithelium detachments associated with age-related macular degeneration during upload with intravitreal ranibizumab [J]. Retina, 2013, 33 (9): 1843-9.
[20]
Decker W L, Sanborn G E, Ridley M, et al. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears [J]. Ophthalmology, 1983, 90 (5): 507-512.
[21]
Bressler N M, Finklestein D, Sunness J S, et al. Retinal pigment epithelial tears through the fovea with preservation of good visual acuity. [J]. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1990, 108 (12): 1694.
[22]
Coscas G, Françoise Koenig, Gisèle Soubrane. The Pretear Characteristics of Pigment Epithelial Detachments: A Study of 40 Eyes [J]. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1990, 108 (12): 1687-93.
[23]
Bird, C A. Pathogenesis of retinal pigment epithelial detachment in the elderly; the relevance of Bruch\"s membrane change [J]. Eye, 1991, 5 (1): 1-12.
[24]
Gamulescu M A, Framme C, Sachs H. RPE-rip after intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment for vascularised PED secondary to AMD [J]. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2006, 245 (7): 1037-1040.
[25]
Meyer C H, Toth C A. Retinal pigment epithelial tear with vitreomacular attachment: a novel pathogenic feature [J]. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2001, 239 (5): 325-333.
[26]
Chang L K, Sarraf D. Tears of the retinal pigment epithelium: an old problem in a new era [J]. Retina, 2007, 27 (5): 523.
[27]
Hartnett M E, Lappas A, Darland D, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium and endothelial cell interaction causes retinal pigment epithelial barrier dysfunction via a soluble VEGF-dependent mechanism [J]. Experimental Eye Research, 2003, 77 (5): 0-599.
[28]
Spaide R F. Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Age-related Macular Degeneration [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2009, 147 (4): 0-652.
[29]
Clemens C R, Bastian N, Alten F, et al. Prediction of retinal pigment epithelial tear in serous vascularized pigment epithelium detachment [J]. Acta Ophthalmologica, 2014, 92 (1): e50-e56.
[30]
Nagiel A, Freund K B, Spaide R F, et al. Mechanism of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tear Formation Following Intravitreal Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy Revealed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2013, 156 (5): 981-988. e2.
[31]
Mouallem A, Sarraf D, Chen X, et al. Double Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears In Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration [J]. Retina, 2016, 36 (11): 2197.
[32]
Ie D, Yannuzzi L A, Spaide R F, et al. Microrips of the retinal pigment epithelium. [J]. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1992, 110 (10): 1443.
[33]
Lafaut, A B. Clinicopathological correlation of retinal pigment epithelial tears in exudative age related macular degeneration: pretear, tear, and scarred tear [J]. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2001, 85 (4): 454-460.
[34]
Ersoz M G, Karacorlu M, Arf S, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium tears: Classification, pathogenesis, predictors, and management [J]. Survey of Ophthalmology, 2017: S0039625716301606.
[35]
Leitritz M, Gelisken F, Inhoffen W, et al. Can the risk of retinal pigment epithelium tears after bevacizumab treatment be predicted? An optical coherence tomography study [J]. Eye, 2008, 22 (12): 1504-1507.
[36]
Sarraf D, Joseph A, Rahimy E. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears in the Era of Intravitreal Pharmacotherapy: Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Prognosis and Treatment (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis) [J]. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc, 2014, 112: 142-159.
[37]
Chan C K, Meyer C H, Gross J G, et al. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears after Intravitreal bevacizumab Injection For Neovascular age-related macular degeneration [J]. Retina, 2007, 27 (5): 541-551.
[38]
Shiraki K, Kohno T, Ataka S, et al. Thinning and small holes at an impending tear of a retinal pigment epithelial detachment [J]. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2001, 239 (6): 430-436.
[39]
Moroz I, Moisseiev J, Alhalel A. Optical coherence tomography predictors of retinal pigment epithelial tear following intravitreal bevacizumab injection [J]. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina, 2009, 40 (6): 570-5.
[40]
Bastian N, Fonseca S, Clemens C R, et al. Predictive Near-Infrared SLO Signs for Tears of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration. [J]. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, 2013, 230 (3): 270-274.
[41]
Mukai R, Sato T, Kishi S. Precursor stage of retinal pigment epithelial tear in age-related macular degeneration [J]. Acta Ophthalmologica, 2014, 92 (5): e407-e408.
[42]
Clemens C R, Alten F, Eter N. Reading the signs: Microrips as a prognostic sign for impending RPE tear development [J]. Acta Ophthalmologica, 2015, 93 (7): e600-e602.
[43]
Von Ruckmann A, Fitzke F W, Bird A C. Distribution of fundus autofluorescence with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. [J]. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1995, 79 (5): 407-412.
[44]
Mendis R, Lois N. Fundus autofluorescence in patients with retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears: an in-vivo evaluation of RPE resurfacing [J]. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 2014, 252 (7): 1059-1063.
[45]
Karadimas P, Paleokastritis G P, Bouzas E A. Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging Findings in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear [J]. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 2006, 16 (5): 767-769.
[46]
Caramoy A, Fauser S, Kirchhof B. Fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings suggesting tissue remodelling in retinal pigment epithelium tear [J]. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2012, 96 (9): 1211-1216.
[47]
Kazunobu A, Fumi G, Miki S, et al. Additional anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for eyes with a retinal pigment epithelial tear after the initial therapy [J]. Ratina, 2014, 34 (3): 512-8.
[48]
Giovannini A, Scassellati-Sforzolini B, Lafaut B, et al. Indocyanine green angiography of retinal pigment epithelial tears [J]. Acta Ophthalmologica, 1999, 77 (1): 83-87.
[49]
Sarraf D, Reddy S, Chiang A, et al. A new grading system for retinal pigment epithelial tears [J]. Retina, 2010, 30 (7): 1039.
[50]
Giovannini A, Amato G, Mariotti C, et al. Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of retinal pigment epithelial tear [J]. Retina, 2000, 20 (1): 37.
[51]
Caramoy A, Kirchhof B, Fauser S. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration [J]. Archives of ophthalmology, 2011, 129 (5): 575-579.
[52]
Chan C K, Abraham P, Sarraf D, et al. Earlier therapeutic effects associated with high dose (2. 0 mg) Ranibizumab for treatment of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration [J]. Eye, 2015, 29 (1): 80-7.
[53]
Park D H, Sun H J, Lee S J. A comparison of responses to intravitreal bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or aflibercept injections for neovascular age-related macular degeneration [J]. International Ophthalmology, 2016, 37 (5): 1-10.
[54]
Chiang A, Chang L K, Yu F, et al. Predictors of anti-VEGF-associated retinal pigment epithelial tear using FA and OCT analysis. [J]. Retina, 2008, 28 (9): 1265.
[55]
Saito M, Kano,, Itagaki,, et al. Retinal pigment epithelium tear after intravitreal aflibercept injection [J]. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2013, 7: 1287-9.
[56]
Clemens C R, Eter N. Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tears: Risk Factors, Mechanism and Therapeutic Monitoring [J]. Ophthalmologica, 2016, 235 (1): 1-9.
[57]
Asao K, Gomi F, Sawa M, et al. Additional Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy For Eyes With a Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear After The Initial Therapy [J]. Retina, 2014, 34 (3): 512-8.
[58]
Clemens C R, Alten F, Baumgart C, et al. Quantigication Of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tear Area In Age-Related Macular Degeneration [J]. Retina, 2014, 34 (1): 24-31.
[59]
Rosenfeld P J, Brown D M, Heier J S, et al. Ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration [J]. The New England journal of medicine, 2006, 355 (14): 1419-31.
[60]
Cunningham E T, Feiner L, Chung C, et al. Incidence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears after Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration [J]. 2011, 118 (12): 2447-2452.
[61]
Durkin S R, Farmer L D M, Kulasekara S, et al. Change in vision after retinal pigment epithelium tear following the use of anti-VEGF therapy for age-related macular degeneration [J]. Graefe\"s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2016, 254 (1): 1-6.
[62]
Gutfleisch M, Heimes B, Schumacher M, et al. Long-term visual outcome of pigment epithelial tears in association with anti-VEGF therapy of pigment epithelial detachment in AMD [J]. Eye, 2011, 25 (9): 1181-1186.
[63]
Caramoy A, Kirchhof B, Fauser S. Morphological versus functional photoreceptor viability of retinal pigment epithelium tears [J]. Acta ophthalmologica, 2012, 90 (4): e328-9.
[64]
Stanzel B V, Liu Z, Somboonthanakij S, et al. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space [J]. stem cell reports, 2014, 2 (1): 64-77.
[65]
Dirani A, Ambresin A, Marchionno L, et al. Factors Influencing the Treatment Response of Pigment Epithelium Detachment in Age-Related Macular Degeneration [J]. American journal of ophthalmology, 2015, 160 (4): 732-8. e2.
[66]
Hanumunthadu D, Ilginis T, Balaggan K S, et al. Response of Pigment Epithelial Detachment to Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment in Age-Related Macular Degeneration [J]. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 2016, 168.
[67]
Badal, Biarnés, Marc, Monés, Jordi. Bimonthly half-dose ranibizumab in large pigment epithelial detachment and retinal angiomatous proliferation with high risk of retinal pigment epithelium tear: a case report [J]. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2013, 7: 1089-92.
[68]
Nagiel A, Sadda S R, Schwartz S D, et al. Resolution Of A Giant Pigment Epithelial Detachment With Half-Dose Aflibercept [J]. Retinal Cases and Brief Reports, 2015, 9 (4): 269.
[69]
Intravitreal Aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) in Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration [J]. Ophthalmology, 2012, 119 (12): 2537-2548.
Browse journals by subject